15 Halogenation of Alkenes 15 Halogenation of Alkenes

15 Halogenation of Alkenes

Sophomore Organic Chemistry By Inquisition: the first animated workbook series for self-study and flipped teaching

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Publisher Description

Questions about halogenation of alkenes nearly always come up in sophomore organic chemistry. Chemistries of alkene chlorinations and brominations involve halonium intermediates. Iodinations too, but the products are unstable relative to the starting material; nevertheless, iodination is impactful for alkene isomerization.

When stereospecifities occur in chlorinations and brominations they are governed by halonium ion intermediates. It is easy to see effects of this for cyclic alkenes which give trans-products, but for acyclic alkenes it is necessary to understand how E- and Z-isomers form diasteromeric products via halonium ion intermediates.

Halonium ions can be intercepted in nucleophilic solvents to give halohydrins. Regiochemistries for unsymmetrical alkenes are determined by relative stabilities of transitions states leading to formation of halohydrins from halonium ions.

The summary above outlines nearly everything introductory organic chemistry students are expected to know about alkene brominations. However, the topic provides an opportunity to introduce kinetic and thermodynamic control by pretending bromination of 1,3-butadiene is important. It is not, but understanding kinetic and thermodynamic control is because it impacts many organic reactions. Consequently, a detailed discussion was given, but the most important things to understand are pure kinetic and pure thermodynamic control (bottom left and right). Non-coincident kinetic and thermodynamic control is specialized and not tested frequently.

This book guides students towards understanding via a series of leading questions (answers to all online at www.byinquisition.org). There are several embedded videos to elaborate key points.

GENRE
Science & Nature
RELEASED
2023
24 December
LANGUAGE
EN
English
LENGTH
47
Pages
PUBLISHER
By Inquisition Press
SELLER
Kevin Burgess
SIZE
19.8
MB

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