Traditionally, men and women have been subjected to different "rules" guiding sexual behavior. Women were stigmatized for engaging in any sexual activity outside of heterosexual marriage, whereas for men such behavior was expected and rewarded. Boys had to "sow their wild oats," but girls were warned that a future husband "won't buy the cow if he can get the milk for free" (Crawford & Unger, 2000, p. 288). Women were faced with a Madonna-whore dichotomy: They were either pure and virginal or promiscuous and easy. These rules have been the subject of considerable research. Reiss (1967) conducted the first large-scale and systematic study of sexual double standards. Although others had studied sexual behavior, Reiss focused on attitudes toward "various degrees of heterosexual permissiveness embodied in our premarital standards" (p. 6). His study included random samples of students from five selected high schools and colleges as well as a nationally representative sample of 1550 adults. His survey assessed attitudes toward "premarital sexual permissiveness" and their demographic and sociocultural correlates, such as age, race, social class, religion, and family characteristics.