Some Arab states face the prospect of total collapse due to their failure to be up to imminent challenges, especially the arrest of government institutions and the necessity to modernize supervisory bodies, Amr Hamzawy, an Egyptian academic, wrote in the London-based daily AL HAYAT on Oct. 7. "The state and its institutions in various parts of the Arab world face serious challenges, including the threat of collapse or failure of state institutions and the need to modernize governance systems to meet the needs of people in the 21st century," he wrote in the Saudi-owned newspaper. "Yet, little attention is paid in political analysis and public debate to these challenges. Instead, focus is on the disadvantages and flaws of political regimes, especially in terms of democracy and pluralism; this focus is the basis of calls for political and social reform," he added. Arguing that reforming political regimes would not redress these challenges, Hamzawy, a research director and senior associate at the Carnegie Middle East Center in Beirut, warned that the states of Yemen, Sudan, Iraq and Lebanon have become so weak that the possibility of their failure is no longer remote. In another group of Arab states, including Morocco, Egypt, Syria, Jordan and some Gulf states, the state is increasingly failing to efficiently meet the needs of people, added the author, who is a regular commentator in the newspaper. "Three categories of challenges face Arab states," Hamzawy wrote in AL HAYAT. "The first and most imminent and dangerous category is related to a state's failure. In this category, Yemen is seen today headed towards failure as its central government is losing security and administrative control," he said.