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The pineal gland is a small organ shaped like a pine cone (hence its name).
In humans it is firm, red and roughly 1 cm in length,
It is located on the midline attached by a hollow stalk to the posterior end of the roof of the third ventricle in the brain.
It is dorsal to the superior colliculus and behind and beneath the stria medullaris between the laterally positioned thalamic bodies.
It is part of the epithalamus.
Clothed in pia mater, it is embedded in the dense connective tissue of the subarachnoid cistern of the great cerebral vein formed by the junction of the internal cerebral vein in the transverse fissure between the pineal and splenium of the corpus callosum.
It originates from the 3rd ventricle as a diverticulum later attached to stalk in the pineal recess.
A structure of the diencephalon of the brain, the pineal gland produces several important hormones including melatonin.

Melatonin influences sexual development and sleep-wake cycles.
The pineal gland is composed of cells called pinealocytes and cells of the nervous system called glial cells.
The pineal gland connects the endocrine system with the nervous system in that it converts nerve signals from the sympathetic system of the peripheral nervous system into hormone signals.
The pineal gland is involved in:
Secretion of the Hormone Melatonin:
The pineal gland synthesizes and secretes melatonin a structurally simple hormone that communicates information about environmental lighting to various parts of the body.
Ultimately, melatonin has the ability to entrain biological rhythms and has important effects on reproductive function of many animals.
The light-transducing ability of the pineal gland has led some to call the pineal the third eye.
A pineal gland once tuned into to proper frequencies with help of meditation, yoga or various esoteric, occult methods, enables a person to travel into other dimensions, popularly known as astral travel or remote viewing
1. Regulation of Endocrine Functions
2. Conversion of Nervous System Signals to Endocrine Signals
3. Causes Feeling of Sleepiness
4. Influences Sexual Development
Melatonin: Synthesis, Secretion and Receptors
The precursor to melatonin is serotonin, a neurotransmitter that itself is derived from the amino acid tryptophan.
Within the pineal gland, serotonin is chemically changed to yield melatonin.
Synthesis and secretion of melatonin is dramatically affected by light exposure to the eyes.
The fundamental pattern observed is that serum concentrations of melatonin are low during the daylight hours, and increase to a peak during the dark.
The mechanism behind this pattern of secretion during the dark cycle is that activity of the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis - serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) - is low during daylight and peaks during the dark phase.

Chapter 1 The Pineal Gland
Chapter 2 Pineal Gland Function
Chapter 3 Melatonin and Its Functions
Chapter 4 Pineal Cells and Endocrine Function
Chapter 5 The Third Eye
Chapter 6 Pineal Gland and Third Eye

Professional & Technical
October 19
Kenneth Kee

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