- 2,99 €
Demographic and social trends have drastically influenced the structure of African American families. Along with structural changes, there have also occured transitions in the roles of grandmother caregivers. Historically, the African American grandmother has played important roles within the extended family network. She has been guardian and caregiver for her children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and as well as fictive kin. She represents wisdom and strength while serving as keeper of the family values, and conveyer of African American culture. It was the grandmother who reminded family members of their obligations and goals. African American grandmothers have played major roles in the socialization of children and the stabilization of families. The strength and resilience of African American grandparenthood is imbedded in her ability to withstand the harshness of slavery and oppression, her ability to perform multiple roles, her love of family, and her strong religious beliefs. The African American grandmother has been appropriately described by E. Franklin Frazier as the guardian of the generations. African American families, where the grandmother is caregiver for grandchildren, are increasing rapidly. This increase is most prevalent in low income, inner city, African American communities. The problems precipitating the need for grandparent caregivers, contribute to family disruptions and leave dependent children without adequate adult supervision. Because of the financial burden, many grandmothers are forced to give up their jobs, and some must return to work after retirement. In addition to taking care of their own children, they may take care of two or three generations, as well as ailing elderly parents and other family members.