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This report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. Arctic ice is receding and creating increased activity. A navigable Arctic poses security concerns, but also represents accessible resources and reduced shipping costs. This research investigates the following questions: Does the Department of Defense (DOD) have the capabilities to meet U.S. security objectives in the Arctic? What are the DOD's related national strategy responsibilities? What opportunities exist to minimize cost while providing capability? What contract actions are appropriate for Phase Zero of Arctic planning? Included is a literature review of national strategy and international policies, limited to specific research areas. Analysis of procurement stakeholder integration uses Yoder's Three-Tier Model. Examination of successful integration uses Yoder's Three Integrated Pillars. The agility, discipline, and risk pillars are used to determine contract considerations. This research found that the DOD is not prepared to conduct military operations in the Arctic, and has deficiencies in equipment and training for national defense roles. Also, the DOD lacks trained personnel capable in the immersive interagency, international, and non-governmental integration necessary for procurement efforts. There are several tasks the DOD is charged with supporting; only one task was specified. Joint interagency integration and selection of an appropriate contract type are key to meeting U.S. national security objectives in the Arctic.
As the polar ice in the Arctic melts, conditions are set for increased naval traffic and natural resource exploration and exploitation. The United States Energy Information Administration estimates that 13% of the world's oil reserves and 30% of the world's natural gas reserves rest in the undiscovered areas of the Arctic. In addition to oil and gas, the Arctic is home to an estimated one trillion dollars' worth of minerals, such as zinc and nickel. There has also been a 118% increase in maritime traffic between 2008 and 2012, a trend that will continue to grow as resources and resource-extracting technology becomes more available. This increase of availability of resources will undoubtedly create competition for these resources from both Arctic and non-Arctic states. As a nation with Arctic interest, it is prudent that U.S. planning and forecasting efforts focus on nonaggressive development with the intent of forging cooperative partnerships in the interest of Arctic stability and prosperity. This research explores the feasible options and the strategic contracting considerations to facilitate U.S. Arctic strategic objectives, given the unique operating environment of the Arctic's geopolitical and geographical constraints and capability gaps. The intent of this research is to identify the specific contracting considerations critical to the achievement of U.S. Arctic strategic objectives, develop those considerations, and then provide recommendations for contract types based on appropriate levels of risk and maturity of technology.
Chapter II develops an understanding of the unique geographical area of interest and an overview of the national policy objectives, the implementation plan for those policy objectives, political and environmental constraints, and ongoing military and civilian exercises. Chapter III examines appropriate frameworks for analysis of Arctic requirements and contracting options for meeting national initiatives in the Arctic. In Chapter IV, findings and recommendations are provided. Chapter V includes a summary, conclusion, and recommendations for further research.