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This book describes Abdominal Pain, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases
Abdominal pain is one of most frequent symptoms encountered by doctors, either in primary or secondary health care (specialists).
It may be mild discomfort, but it may also a life-threatening sign
Abdominal pain is categorized as acute or chronic based on a random cut-off of 12 weeks.
Most cases of abdominal pain are mild and have a range of frequent causes, such as indigestion or muscle strain.
Symptoms often recover quickly on their own or with basic treatment.
Abdominal pain, particularly with severe or chronic symptoms, can also be a sign of more serious underlying medical disorders, such as cancer or organ failure.
Abdominal pain indicates discomfort in the abdominal space between the chest and pelvis.
Sudden and severe or long-lasting abdominal pain may need instant medical treatment.
It has been evaluated that almost 50% adults have had abdominal pain and it is accountable for 5-10% of all emergency visits.
Careful assessment should be done when dealing with elderly patients (>65 years) who suffered from abdominal pain since they are at 6-8 times higher danger for mortality, mostly if the final diagnosis cannot be confirmed in the Emergency Department.
Sudden start of abdominal pain that persists for less than 24 hours is regarded as acute abdominal pain.
Nausea, vomiting, and a loose stool may happen with abdominal pain if the cause is gastroenteritis.
Digestive disorders are regarded the most frequent cause of abdominal pain.
Discomfort or irregularities in any organ or part of the abdomen can produce pain that spreads throughout the complete area.
Many people called abdominal pain simply a stomachache.
The abdomen has many vital organs, muscles, blood vessels, and connective tissues that involve:
4. Small and large intestines
5. The appendix
The main artery of the heart (aorta) and another heart vein (inferior vena cava) also pass through the abdomen too.
The abdomen also houses the core abdominal muscles, the 4 groups of abdominal muscles that give the trunk stability and keep organs in place and protected.
Since there are a lot of regions that can be affected, abdominal pain may have many causes.
In children there may functional abdomen pain every time they have to go school because of the bothering fear of school teachers or classmates.
Other ways to portray pain in the abdomen are:
1. Generalized pain
a. This means that the patient feel it in more than half of the abdomen.
b. This type of pain is more typical for a stomach virus, indigestion, or gas.
c. If the pain becomes more severe, it may be caused by a blockage of the intestines.
2. Localized pain
a. This is pain found in only one area of the abdomen.
b. It is more likely to be a sign of a problem in an organ, such as the appendix, gallbladder, or stomach.
3. Cramp-like pain
a. This type of pain is not serious most of the time.
b. It is likely to be due to gas and bloating, and is often followed by diarrhea.
c. More worrisome signs include pain that occurs more often, lasts more than 24 hours, or occurs with a fever.
4. Colicky pain
a. This type of pain comes in waves.
b. It very often starts and ends suddenly, and is often severe.
c. Kidney stones and gallstones are common causes of this type of abdomen pain.
The specific symptoms, the location of pain and when it occurs will help the doctor detect the cause.
Diagnosis is by:
1. Blood, urine and stool test
2. Pregnancy test
3. CT scan
4. Ultrasound of the abdomen
5. Colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy
Treatment is based on the cause of the abdominal pain.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter 1 Abdominal Pain
Chapter 2 Causes
Chapter 3 Symptoms
Chapter 4 Diagnosis
Chapter 5 Treatment
Chapter 6 Prognosis
Chapter 7 Abdominal Bloating
Chapter 8 Peptic Ulcer