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This excellent report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. This study examines the criminal networks used to penetrate Texas by the Mara Salvatrucha (MS 13) street gang. MS 13's internal reach is analyzed by examining the existing and potential horizontal integration of the known cliques (gang cells). Additionally, the organizations' existing reach and potential transnational reach are analyzed by examining the existing and potential vertical integration between its domestic and Central American components. The identification of MS 13's criminal networks is completed by using a first-generation manual approach lens. This approach involves examining data to uncover associations between criminals, resulting in the creation of an association matrix that links MS-13 with affiliates. The research shows that MS 13 is a significant threat to public security in the state of Texas for two main reasons: proximity to cartels and demographics of the state. Research shows that criminal networks are already at work and that MS 13 should be taken seriously in Texas. The risk to Texas stems from the similarities, in terms of demographics and proximity to transnational cartels, to Los Angeles, California, where MS 13 originated.
I. DEFINING MARA SALVATRUCHA'S (MS 13) TEXAS CRIMINAL NETWORK * A. MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION * B. SIGNIFICANCE OF DEFINING THE MS 13 NETWORK IN TEXAS * C. LITERATURE REVIEW * II. A HISTORY OF VIOLENCE * A. 1872-1932 * B. 1932-1969 * C. 1969-1992 * D. CONCLUSION * III. ESTABLISHMENT AND EXPANSION OF THE MARA SALVATRUCHA NETWORK * A. ESTABLISHMENT AND GROWTH IN LOS ANGELES * B. CENTRAL AMERICA * C. WASHINGTON, DC, REGION * D. CONCLUSION * IV. TEXAS * A. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION OF MS 13'S NETWORK * B. VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF MS 13'S NETWORK * C. RELEVANCE OF INTERSTATE CORRIDORS * V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS * A. CONCLUSIONS * 1. MS 13 Presence in Texas Will Likely Grow Substantially in the Next Five Years * 2. Texas Will Not Defeat MS 13 with Law Enforcement and Anti-immigration Policy * 3. Stopping the Zetas Does Not Equate to Stopping MS 13 * B. RECOMMENDATIONS * 1. Keep the Big Picture in Sight * 2. Use Best Practices in Dealing with MS 13 * 3. Ask the Media to Help Limit Gang Exposure
This study seeks to define the networks used by MS 13 by analyzing known associations used by MS 13 to penetrate Texas. The research question, significance, and relevant literature are addressed in the first chapter. The second chapter focuses on the historical background of El Salvador; it links the origins of the violent gang known today as MS 13 to a violent past dating to 1932. The third chapter discusses the establishment and expansion of the MS13 network through the lens of U.S. policy, media, and demographics. This chapter introduces MS 13 strongholds in L.A., Central America, and DC. The first three chapters set the background for the fourth, which covers MS 13 networks in Texas. The fourth chapter addresses what known horizontal and vertical networks can tell us about the current networks utilized by MS 13 to further penetrate the state of Texas. The final chapter presents the conclusion and recommendations of best practices utilized elsewhere for employment in Texas.