Since the end of the Cold War the global arena has become a place for dynamic change, in particular for federal political units. The focus on defunct federalisms draws attention not only to the difference between state-making and nation building, it also points to the fact that state-making does not necessarily lead to the creation of a national identity. This comparative volume looks at the track record of several defunct federalisms to identify options that have been overlooked and decisions that precipitated the collapse. Bringing together insights from the study of state failure and federal collapse, it examines the ways in which parallel assessment is crucial for suggesting the complex structures of identity accommodation in federal entities. The volume is ideal for advanced undergraduates and graduate students as well as university lecturers and researchers working on the issues related to contemporary federalism, history of federal units and the questions of national identity.