The Framers of the U.S. Constitution anticipated, and, in fact, were counting on the possibility that, at times, as James Madison wrote in Federalist No. 51, "[a]mbition must be made to counter ambition." (1) But is the Framer's constitutional design still relevant? In other words, in the modern era, is divided government good for the United States? It is not for three reasons: divided government leads to an unjustifiable weakness in government brought about by a lack of accountability; it produces legislative "gridlock"; and it contributes to a diminution of the expression of the popular will. There are numerous reasons for one to believe that the United States benefits from divided government. Some political commentators and politicians maintain that it acts as a restraint on government, limiting party overreach by forcing politicians to compromise on important issues. (2) Perhaps the most compelling argument made in favor of divided government is that it is more representative of the electorate since not all Americans identify exclusively with a particular party. As William Niskanen, chair emeritus of the Cato Institute, notes, "American voters, in their unarticulated collective wisdom, have voted for a divided federal government for most of the past 50 years." (3) But can anyone prove that divided government actually produces better results?