Argued: May 16, 2002 Chief Judge Walker concurs in a separate opinion. Responding to what it perceived to be an unwillingness on the part of courts to impose discretionary sanctions on parties who brought abusive securities fraud lawsuits, Congress passed Section 21D(c) of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (PSLRA), 15 U.S.C. § 78u-4(c). See S. Rep. No. 104-98, at 13 (1995), reprinted in 1995 U.S.C.C.A.N. 679, 692. While the mischief that Congress was addressing is clear, the statutory language Congress employed is not.