INTRODUCTION Hunting is big business. In 2006, 12.5 million U.S. hunting consumers over the age of 16 spent $25 billion hunting. The average annual expenditure per hunter was $1,992 or $110 per hunting day (NSSF 2007). Wildlife recreation is a catalyst for economic growth in every state, particularly in rural areas which have less commerce than urban areas. Spending by outdoorsmen increases employment (593,000 jobs), raises economic output, and generates tax revenues for local communities (Southwick Associates 2007). Private beneficiaries of this largesse include manufacturers, distributors, and retailers of guns, electronics, decoys and calls, trees stands and ground blinds, ATVs, cutlery, archery, clothing, footwear, optics, food, drink, gasoline, lodging, outfitters, outdoor media, and landowners. Perhaps more importantly, the 50 state wildlife agencies rely on the $10.6 billion collected annually in hunting and fishing licenses and fees as their primary source of revenue (FHWAR 2006). In addition to license fees many agencies receive a portion of the taxes levied on hunting and fishing equipment. In sum, the management of all wildlife and their habitats is primarily paid for by hunters, fisherman, and farmers so that they and others can enjoy it.