Mediterranean climates are characterized by mild wet winters and warm dry summer conditions. They can be found around the Mediterranean Sea and on portions of the southwest coasts of North America, South America, Australia, and Africa. All of the Mediterranean climate zones have been recognized as centers of endemism and members of the specialized communities may be at significant risk of extinction. The plant communities in regions have converged on similar dense evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation types. The insect and disease issues are often specific to the Mediterranean forest systems rather than shared with the temperate forests. In addition to the specific native insects and diseases, the forests are also subject to the invasion of exotic species. The forests are also at risk from high degrees of human activity, including changing patterns of forest fires, land management activities, intensive plantation forestry using introduced timber species from other Mediterranean climate zones, and atmospheric deposition. Combined with elements of global climate change that may disproportionately affect Mediterranean climate systems, this creates a number of significant management issues that are unique to the Mediterranean forests. This volume is an effort to compile the experiences of leaders of the research communities within the Mediterranean climate zones around the world. The research findings from one part of the world can be applied to new areas or can be used as a foundation for research to address related problems in those areas. It is our goal that the information contained in this volume will contribute to understanding the unique aspects of Mediterranean forest systems and to protecting these critical resources.