Introduction When did the Irish cultural revival begin? Did it precede or follow the death of Pamell in October 1891, and that moment in which W.B. Yeats prophesied that Ireland 'was to be like soft wax for years to come'? (1) Or did it begin several years earlier, as a function of constitutional nationalism's success, rather than its failure? (2) How should the movement be described? Should critics refer to the 'Irish Literary Revival', 'Ireland's Literary Renaissance', the 'Gaelic Revival' or the 'Modernism' of the 'Celtic Revival'? (3) For whom did the Irish cultural revival matter? Was it, as some critics have argued, merely a means by which a group of Anglo-Irish intellectuals translated 'political dispossession into cultural production', a means by which 'Anglo-Ireland continued to stake its monopolizing claim on Irish culture'? (4) Did revivalists have 'a community of interests, a certain coherence of outlook, and a sense of shared purpose'? (5) Or did the Revival gain its momentum from the fact that it involved pe ople of different generations with different religious, class, and cultural backgrounds and different conceptions of what they were trying to achieve, which they were prepared to debate and fight for?