This book presents the complete guide for readers to understand the applications, and pros and cons of nanotechnology applications in environmental remediation, although there are few critical reviews and textbooks available on environmental biotechnology. Water pollution has become one of the biggest concerns of the world. After the industrialisation and urbanisation, environmental pollution has become an enormous concern. Water pollution results in biomagnifications by entering the food chain. As a result water pollution and its risks need to be considered seriously and solutions need to be researched. This volume looks into such topics as bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, biosensors, and enzyme degradation to find solutions to these problems.