The book contains some of the important research works being carried out on plants and microorganisms prevalent in the region. While enumerating the distribution of bio- resources, the book highlights possible use of phyto-chemicals, micro-organisms and their products for various applications. The book highlights scope for multidisciplinary research in discovery of new bioactive molecules from plants and microorganisms. The huge gene pool of the non- culturable bacteria for the purpose of industrial enzymes as well as other products would comprise metagenomic exploitation of unknown microbial diversity. This modem metagenomic approach is expected to assist food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries in a Big way. The prospect of biotechnological intervention of plants and microbes, as well as synthesis and application of nanoparticles/composites for addressing various concerns of the ecosystem has also been presented. The book presents twenty recommendations towards prospective use and conservation of plant and microbial resources of the North Eastern Region of the country.