This excellent report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. Europe in the twentieth century witnessed the large-scale displacement and mass murder of civilian populations because of their ethnic or national identity. Genocide is the ultimate expression of this form of integral nationalism. As a result of the Second World War, the term "genocide" was introduced to describe the victimization of nations, and became codified in international law and agreements. The end of the century saw the introduction of a new term: "ethnic cleansing". This term was used to signify something less than the total physical annihilation of a people in the Balkans wars, in contrast to the extermination campaign of the Nazis in World War Two, or the Turks following World War One. This work looks at both campaigns, the Nazis against the Jews and the Serbs against the Bosnians, to argue, however, that ethnic cleansing is genocide. While much of the debate of the 1990s focuses on body counts to justify the distinction between the two, a careful analysis of the original work on genocide and the UN Agreement which outlaws such phenomenon reveal that this "body count" notion is neither correct nor justifiable. Similarly, a look at these two cases reveals act of genocide developed gradually, rather than as part of pre-existing master plans.
CHAPTER I * INTRODUCTION * CHAPTER II * ON GENOCIDE AND NATIONALISM * A. ON GENOCIDE * 1. What is Genocide? * 2. The United Nations * 3. The Hague Regulations * 4. Genocide Versus Ethnic Cleansing * B. ON NATIONALISM * C. NAZI GERMANY * CHAPTER III * THE NAZI HOLOCAUST * A. EUGENICS AND EUTHANASIA * B. THE EXPULSION POLICIES * C. KILLING THE JEWS * CHAPTER IV * THE BALKAN WARS, 1991-1995 * A. THE ORIGINS OF MODERN NATIONALISM IN THE BALKANS * B. NATIONALISM IN THE BALKANS * C. GENOCIDE IN THE BALKANS * CHAPTER V * CONCLUSION * A. THE ORIGINS OF GENOCIDE * B. THE ACTS OF GENOCIDE * C. GENOCIDE AND INTERNATIONAL LAW * BIBLIOGRAPHY