Terrorism is not a new issue in France, not by any means. The recent attacks which killed 12 editors and cartoonists at the offices of the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, brings to mind the history of terrorism during the war for Algerian Independence from 1953-1962. In those years France endured a campaign of bombings by the Organisation de l'Armee (OAS), a group formed by dissident French generals. Their ambition was for Algeria to remain a part of France indefinitely. During the Algerian uprising, especially in the years 1961-1962), the OAS carried out bombings in Paris and elsewhere, designed to undermine the government of French President Charles de Gaulle. Store fronts, night clubs, apartments, clothing stores, etc., were targeted. Deceptive and secretive plastic bombs were placed in windows, suitcases, outside of apartments, in elevators and other locales by fanatics for the purpose of denying Algeria independence. Both the OAS and its rival the FLN collected tributes from unwilling and innocent merchants who wanted to fund their selfish ambitions. One Parisian shopkeeper endured three separate bombings to his businesses and his residence. He eventually sent his family to the countryside to avoid further terrorist acts against him. His quick reaction in stomping the fuse of a bomb that was left at his door kept him alive on one occasion. Fortunately he heard the click of an elevator that carried a bomber who planted an infamous plastique bomb outside his apartment entrance.