This volume synthesizes the relevant data that is fundamental to our understanding of trace metal biogeochemistry and the ecology of biological communities of deep-sea vent systems. It presents the combined results of biological and geochemical research and analyzes the microdistribution of animals and the spatial structure of vent communities. Careful consideration is given to the export of iron and other trace metals from hydrothermal vents. The environmental conditions to be found in deep-sea hydrothermal community habitats, along with the trace metal behavior in biotope water are characterized and the sources and forms of trace metals taken up by dominant hydrothermal vent animals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the poorly investigated deep biosphere of the sub-seafloor igneous crust. The book is illustrated with a wealth of exceptional deep-sea photos taken by the manned submersible “Mir”, and a dedicated chapter focuses on the role of deep manned submersibles in ocean research. The book will be of interest to researchers and students in the fields of oceanography, geochemistry, biology, the environmental sciences and marine ecology.