This book offers a concise description of the environment and water resources in Turkmenistan. The focus is on the water bodies of Turkmenistan – the Caspian Sea, Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay, Sarykamysh Lake, Amu Darya River, and the Karakum Canal. Respected experts from six different countries cover the landscape-geographical features, the Karakum Desert, biodiversity (especially of birds and fishes) and ecosystems, as well as regional climate change. Special attention is paid to the Altyn Asyr Lake water reclamation project, to the morphometric characteristics of the Karashor Depression, and to the four-year-long satellite monitoring of the construction area in the vicinity of the Karashor Depression. The information presented is based on observational data and scientific literature, mainly published in Russian. This is the first English book on the Altyn Asyr Project. It addresses specialists working in various fields of environmental problems and ecology, water resources and management, land reclamation and agriculture, regional climate change, and international cooperation in the water sector in Turkmenistan and Central Asia.