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This book describes Multiple Sclerosis (Updated), Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases
Multiple Sclerosis is a progressive degenerative disease
That occurs in the nervous system of people of 20-30 ages
The cause is unknown but may be autoimmune due to infection
Multiple sclerosis results in the body nerve cell myelin destruction
There is diplopia and the impairment of vision
There is weakness of the muscles and poor coordination
There is vertigo, hearing loss and paresthesia
Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paresis
Diagnosis is also based on the patient’s physical development
There is evidence of peripheral nerve involvement
Cerebral spinal fluid may show mild mononuclear pleocytosis
MRI search for changes within the brain peculiar to multiple sclerosis
Treatment is usually not a cure but suppression of symptoms
Glatiramer, Natalizumab and Fingolimod are the main medications
Supportive measures are bed rest, proper diet and speech therapy
There is rarely need for any surgical therapy
-An original poem by Kenneth Kee
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system with recurrent episodes of neurological dysfunction disconnected in time and space and associated with evidence of demyelization of the central nervous system.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disorder that induces the body’s immune response to attack the central nervous system.
It affects the patient in different areas of the nervous system at different points in time.
Multiple sclerosis is classified with other autoimmune diseases, but it is also a neurological disorder since the central nervous system is the focus of the inflammatory immune response.
With multiple sclerosis, the immune system assaults the nerve sheath called myelin, which is supposed to protect the nerve cells.
When a person’s immune system mistakenly attacks itself, it can cause debilitating symptoms.
Multiple Sclerosis is not curable but can be suppressed.
Treatment normally focuses on:
1. Speeding recovery from attacks,
2. Slowing the progression of the disease and
3. Managing MS symptoms.
Some people have such mild symptoms that no treatment is needed.
Treatment of the symptoms of MS involves both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic measures.
a. Fatigue: Off-label treatments are amantadine, methylphenidate and fluoxetine
b. Depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are favored
c. Spasticity: Baclofen is effective in most cases
d. Pain: Tricyclic antidepressants are first-line drugs for primary pain
e. Sexual dysfunction: Oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (e.g., sildenafil, tadalafil)
f. Muscle relaxant such as baclofen to reduce muscle spasm and stiffness
g. Optic neuritis: Intravenous methylprednisolone may speed recovery
Multiple Sclerosis often react well to medicine that suppress the immune system’s response.
These immunosuppressive treatments have able to help people with MS to live a relatively happy healthy life.
Doctors have been trying to develop a vaccine for MS that does not weaken the immune system without much success.
Production of the COVID-19 vaccine using mRNA have indicated a vaccine for MS using mRNA technology to treat MS.
This gives hope to people with MS for a symptom-free future.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter 1 Multiple Sclerosis (Updated)
Chapter 2 Causes
Chapter 3 Symptoms
Chapter 4 Diagnosis
Chapter 5 Treatment
Chapter 6 Prognosis
Chapter 7 Updates in Multiple Sclerosis
Chapter 8 Myasthenia Gravis