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This report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction - this is not a print replica, and thus it is suitable for all devices. The purpose of this study was to explore the modern threats to the maritime homeland security environment and the effectiveness of Area Maritime Security Committees (AMSCs) in preventing and responding to transportation security incidents. AMSCs are deliberately designed to encompass senior representatives of numerous stakeholders in the maritime homeland security enterprise, such as law enforcement, fire, industry, and labor. There were two research questions used in this project: What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to the effectiveness of AMSCs, and how can AMSCs improve their interagency collaboration to enhance the homeland security enterprise? Two rounds of Delphi surveys were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of AMSCs. These were issued to 24 people from five Captain of the Port Zones across the West Coast of the United States. The survey answers were then evaluated against open-source reports produced by AMSCs. Between these research sources, AMSCs were shown to be positive collaboration and information-sharing mechanisms, but geography creates barriers to participation and effectiveness. In order to improve, AMSCs must increase funding, change policy to fund the travel and training of AMSC members, recruit and provide engaging training for new personnel, and establish metrics of performance. On the national level, all AMSCs should target and monitor common threats to better secure the maritime transportation system.
This compilation includes a reproduction of the 2019 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community.
I. Introduction * A. Research Question * B. Significance to the Field * C. Literature Review * 1. Policy and Law * 2. Maritime Security * 3. Conclusion * D. Research Design * E. Chapter Overview * II. The Maritime Threat Landscape and the Role of the AMSC * A. Maritime Threats and Maritime Security * 1. Maritime Crime * 2. Terrorism * 3. Smuggling * 4. Cybersecurity * B. Conclusion * III. Research Design: Delphi Panel * A. Port Selection * B. Survey Responses, Findings, and Analysis * 1. Strengths * 2. Weaknesses * 3. Opportunities * 4. Threats * C. Conclusion * IV. Adopting a Collaboration Model * A. Capitalizing on Strengths and Opportunities * 1. Recommendation for Purpose and Strategy * 2. Recommendation for Structural Flexibility * 3. Recommendation for Incentives and Rewards * 4. Recommendation for Lateral Mechanisms * 5. Recommendation for Individual Collaborative Capacities * B. Unreported Challenges * 1. Port Security Grant Program * 2. Cuts to Homeland Security Funding * 3. Port Security Specialists * 4. Geography * 5. Cybersecurity * C. Recommendations For Future Research * D. Conclusion * Appendix A. Round One Survey Data * A. Survey Questions * B. Survey Answers * C. Survey Answers Coded By Theme * D. Survey Answers Coded By SWOT * 1. Strengths * 2. Weaknesses * 3. Opportunities * 4. Threats * Appendix B. Round Two Survey Data * A. Survey Questions * B. Survey Answers * C. Survey Answers Coded By Theme * D. Survey Answers Coded By SWOT * 1. Strengths * 2. Weaknesses * 3. Opportunities * 4. Threats