- 19,00 kr
Several studies (see Owens, Goldfine, Evangelista, Hoza, & Kaiser, 2007 for a review) have consistently found that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity/disorder (ADHD) demonstrate a “positive illusory bias (PIB),” defined as the disparity between self-report of competence and actual competence such that self-reported competence is significantly higher than actual competence (Hoza, Pelham, Dobbs, Owens, & Pillow, 2002). One viable explanation for the PIB is the self-protective hypothesis which states that children attempt to hide their incompetencies by inflating reports of self-competence in order to prevent feelings of failure or inadequacy. Support for this hypothesis has been found in children with ADHD in the social domain (Diener & Milich, 1997; Ohan & Johnston, 2002), but not the academic domain (Ohan & Johnston, 2002). The study sought to replicate the presence of the PIB in the self-perceptions of children with ADHD, and examine the self-protective hypothesis in children with and without ADHD across multiple domains. Achievement and depression were assessed on a dimension across both groups in order to determine the role of these factors in self-perceptions. Participants were 46 children with ADHD and 58 children without ADHD in grades 3-6. Participants completed five tasks during an individual session: (a) the Reading Subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd Edition (b) Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, (c) Self-Perception Profile for Children, (d) Children’s Depression Inventory, and (e) an experimental manipulation task to test the self-protective hypothesis. Participants were randomly assigned to either a no feedback or a positive feedback condition. Consistent with previous literature, children with ADHD overestimated their self-perceptions relative to teachers’ perceptions significantly more than non-ADHD children. More severe depression had a global affect on children’s self-perceptions by negatively impacting their self-perceptions across multiple domains. Conversely, moreADHD symptoms and lower reading achievement exacerbated the PIB in specific domains. Results did not support the self-protective hypothesis across any domain. The findings from this study provide further insight into the function of the PIB and helped to elucidate the relative roles of ADHDsymptoms, reading achievement and depression on the self-perceptions of children.