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Description de l’éditeur
This unique report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. This report assesses China's global expansion by military and nonmilitary means, implications of China's activities, and the U.S. response, as mandated by the National Defense Authorization Act, Public Law 115-91. It describes China's expansion by a range of means, including military access and engagement; the One Belt, One Road (OBOR) and Digital Silk Road initiatives; technology acquisition; and a growing economic footprint; with a focus on areas of military expertise.
The Chinese Communist Party's foreign policy reflects its strategic objectives. The U.S. National Security Strategy states that China seeks to displace the United States in the Indo-Pacific region, expand the reaches of its state-driven economic model, and reorder the region in its favor as the preeminent power. China's most substantial expansion of its military access in recent years has occurred in its near-abroad, where territorial disputes in the East and South China Seas persist, but China has also expanded its military operations further from the Chinese mainland. China seeks this presence based on its changing military focus and expanding international economic interests, which are increasing demands for the PLA to operate in more distant maritime environments to protect Chinese citizens, investments, and critical sea lines of communication. China in 2018 indicated interest in establishing bases in Cambodia and Vanuatu. Although both governments have publicly stated they are not willing to host a Chinese military base, Phnom Penh in the last two years has agreed to receive new military aid from Beijing and participate in bilateral exercises with the PLA.
This compilation includes a reproduction of the 2019 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community.
In 2017, China's leaders said OBOR, which at first included economic initiatives in Asia, South Asia, Africa, and Europe, now encompasses all regions of the world, including the Arctic and Latin America, demonstrating the scope and reach of Beijing's ambition. While some OBOR projects appear to be motivated by economic considerations, OBOR also serves a greater strategic purpose. China intends to use OBOR to develop strong economic ties with other countries, shape their interests to align with China's, and deter confrontation or criticism of China's approach to or stance on sensitive issues. President Xi has promoted the "21st Century Digital Silk Road" alongside OBOR. Chinese state-owned or state-affiliated enterprises, including China Telecom, China Unicom, China Mobile, Huawei, and ZTE, have invested or submitted bids globally in areas such as 5G mobile technology, fiber optic links, undersea cables, remote sensing infrastructure connected to China's Beidou satellite navigation system, and other information and communications technology infrastructure.
I. Introduction * II. China's Global Expansion * A. China's Strategic Intent * B. Expansion by Direct Military Means * Military Access * Military Engagement * C. Expansion by Non-Military Means * Infrastructure Investment: The One Belt, One Road Initiative * Infrastructure Investment: The "Digital Silk Road" Initiative * Broader Economic Trends * Technology Acquisition * Media and Influence Operations * Tourism * III. Implications of China's Activities * A. Posture and Access * B. Training and Logistics * C. Opportunities for Influence * IV. U.S. Response * National Defense Strategy * Support for Whole-of-Government Action