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This book describes Cerebral Edema, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases
Cerebral edema is excessive collection of fluid in the intra-cellular or extra cellular spaces of the brain.
Cerebral edema is also known as brain swelling.
It can be produced by an accident or trauma or some medical conditions.
This pressure can stop blood from flowing to the brain, which deprives the brain of the oxygen it requires to function.
Swelling can also block other fluids from leaving the brain, making the swelling even worse.
Swelling in the brain can be threatening to life.
1.Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called a head injury is a sudden episode injuring the brain.
The initial injury can induce brain tissue to swell.
Also, broken pieces of bone can burst blood vessels in any part of the head.
The body's reaction to the injury may also raise brain swelling.
Too much swelling may stop fluids from leaving the brain.
2. Ischemic stroke is the most frequent type of stroke and is caused by a blood clot or blockage in or near the brain.
The brain is not able to receive the blood and oxygen it requires to function.
As an effect, brain cells begin to die.
As the body reacts, swelling happens in the brain
3.Hemorrhagic strokes are the most frequent type of brain hemorrhage.
They happen when blood vessels anywhere in the brain burst.
As blood leaks and the body reacts, pressure increases inside the brain.
High blood pressure is believed to be the most frequent cause of this form of stroke.
4.Infections induced by an infectious organism such as a virus or bacterium can result in brain swelling.
5.Tumors in some parts of the brain may stop cerebrospinal fluid from flowing out of the brain
6.High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) tends more likely to happen at altitudes above 1,500 meters
5.Seizures in severe cases and
Frequent procedures that doctors use to diagnose brain swelling are:
1.Physical examination to determine pain, discomfort, or anomalies
2.Head and neck examination
4.CT scan of the head to identify the extent and location of the swelling
5.MRI of the head to identify the extent and location of the swelling
6.Blood tests to check for causes of the swelling
The purpose of treatment is to ensure that the brain receives enough blood and oxygen to remain healthy while the swelling is relieved and any underlying causes are treated.
This may need a combination of medical and surgical treatments.
Prompt treatment leads to quicker and more complete recovery.
Without it, some injury may remain.
Minor cases of brain swelling often recover within a few days.
In most cases, more treatment is required quickly.
Monitoring of the patient's condition in the intensive care unit is important.
It is important to make sure of the proper positioning of the patient (the head should be tilted at 30 degrees in order to optimize the cerebral perfusion pressure and control of the rise in intracranial pressure).
Hyperventilation of oxygen should be provided.
Slightly positive fluid balance should be sustained using crystalloid or colloid (hypertonic) solutions, at the same time maintaining cerebral perfusion pressure to exceed 70 mmHg.
The treatment is administration of:
2.Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and
Steroids decrease the permeability of capillaries and the hemato-encephalic barrier, permitting the movement of Na(+)/K(+) ions and water through the main endothelial membrane, and they are given in vasogenic cerebral edema and the edema caused by a cerebral tumor.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter 1 Cerebral Edema
Chapter 2 Causes
Chapter 3 Symptoms
Chapter 4 Diagnosis
Chapter 5 Treatment
Chapter 6 Prognosis
Chapter 7 Head Injuries
Chapter 8 High Attitude Cerebral Edema