When the British Empire partitioned its Indian colony in 1947, it created two independent states: India, where most people were Hindus, and Pakistan, where most were Muslims. Violence immediately broke out, during which approximately 250,000 people were killed and a million became refugees. Since then Pakistan and India have fought several wars, and tensions between the two countries during the late 1990s nearly led to another conflict-one that might have been devastating, as both countries now possess nuclear weapons. This book examines the economic and political issues facing Pakistan today. It provides up-to-date information about the country's geography and climate, history, society, important cities and communities, and relations with other countries.