Teachers of the twenty-first century struggle to meet the diverse needs of their students. The Common Core and National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) along with International Society of Technology Educators (ISTE) standards ask teachers to create an environment that challenges students while promoting problem solving and creative thinking. However, national and state governments place high stakes on standardized testing that does not assess the same outcomes. In fact, the two are at odds with each other. In a rapidly changing world, many educators are interested in changing methods of instruction and considering changes in assessment. However, instead of ensuring that new teaching methods use appropriate assessment methods, research has shown that it is quite the opposite. Curriculum should not determine assessment, nor should assessment determine curriculum. Instead, the two should work together to create authentic learning experiences for the twenty-first century. Digital portfolios are one possible solution to this issue. This book includes the process and ideology behind the use of digital portfolios and how they can help middle-school literacy students to be more reflective and accountable; it is an effort to begin to bridge the gap between twenty-first century instruction and assessment.