Background Norfolk Island, a self-governing Australian territory, is in the Pacific Ocean east of the Australian mainland and has an area of 34.6 [km.sup.2]. The Kingston and Arthurs Vale Historic Area (KAVHA) at the southern tip of the island is of exceptional historical and social value and is included on the Australian National Heritage List (Australian Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts 2008). It also formed part of the 2008 nomination by the Australian Government for World Heritage listing by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) for decision in 2009. The KAVHA site has four distinct settlement periods: Pre-European, two European and a mixed British/European/Polynesian settlement. The precinct contains a fine collection of colonial Georgian buildings that functioned as a convict settlement. The buildings have been stabilised by a program of restoration and conservation which is detailed in the KAVHA Management Plan (2008). This article addresses the most significant maintenance program in the precinct to date, that of restoring and repairing the original Norfolk Island pine shingles on the roofs of the historic buildings. This program commenced in 1985 (P. Anderson, Norfolk Island, 2008, pers. comm.) and effectively concluded 23 years later on 30 June 2008 (Vicky Jack, Norfolk Island, 2008, pers. comm.).