Peer relationships play an important role in socialization during childhood and young adolescence. Negative relationships may pose multiple difficulties for children related to their development that can have lifelong influences. Research indicates that the quality of peer relationships is associated with a variety of outcomes, such as social adjustment in school (Diehl, Lemerise, Caverly, Ramsay, & Roberts, 1998; Ladd, Kochenderfer, & Coleman, 1997); academic performance (Risi, Gerhardstein, & Kistner, 2003); and general self-regard (Hymel, Rubin, Rowden, & LeMare, 1990). Among a number of influential factors, temperament was found to be a major factor in building peer relationships (Szewczyk-Sokolowski, Bost, & Wainwright, 2005). Positive temperament patterns account for the frequency of peer interactions (Keogh & Burstein, 1988). Temperament has been operationalized as a composite conception about individual characteristics reflecting on emotional and behavioral display. Some temperamental dimensions affect the ways children interact with others in their social relationships. Therefore, it is important for teachers and educators to understand the influences of temperament on children's peer relationships. What Is Temperament?