Offshore gas discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean could have a profound impact on the region’s energy, economic, and geopolitical future. But despite the opportunities that these resources present, a number of maritime delimitation disputes complicate the exploration and development of the resources, especially against a background of long-standing regional disputes. The Republic of Cyprus, “the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus,” Turkey, Israel, and Lebanon have all staked claims in the gas fields, some of which conflict. This situation has a negative impact on maritime security in the region. This paper examines the relationship between the exploration for and production of energy and maritime security in the Eastern Mediterranean.