With hundreds of millions of people moving into cities, we're wondering what shapes urban cultures. In this hour, Nobel Laureate Orhan Pamuk talks about how Istanbul shaped his writing. One historian argues that early liberal philosophies from Amsterdam shaped the United States. And we check in on cultural change as Shanghai - already the biggest city in China - grows.
Also, with the new round of calls for a "national conversation" about racism, NPR's Michele Norris talks about how difficult those conversations can be - even at home. [Broadcast Date: September 3, 2014]