Introduction Currently our schools exist in an environment that demands accountability and evidence based performance. In the area of educational technology, hardware and software have been in our schools in substantial concentration for almost two decades, and considering the heavy investment required to put it into schools, it is important to base its implementation and use on proven best practices. The body of usable research currently available, however, is scant and scattered. To date there have been few documented systemic increases in student achievement and learning that are directly attributable to technological innovation. The high expectations for improved student achievement have largely been due to extraordinarily high hopes and due to the massive, ongoing expenditure on providing a low computer-to-student ratio and connectivity to the Internet. The potential for educational technology to revolutionize education has been described repeatedly and yet the promise has not been delivered (Conlon & Simpson, 2003; Cuban, 2001; Sandholtz, 2001). The most recent report on this subject by the U.S. Department of Education concludes:/p pre We have not realized the promise of technology in education. Essentially, providing the hardware without adequate training in its use--and in its endless possibilities for enriching the learning experience--meant that the great promise of Internet technology was frequently unrealized. Computers, instead of transforming education, were often shunted to a "computer room," where they were little used and poorly maintained. Students mastered the wonders of the Internet at home, not in school. Today's students, of almost any age, are far ahead of their teachers in computer literacy. (U.S. Department of Education, 2004, p. 10) /pre pThis article is intended to identify the barriers to implementation of technology for instruction in our classrooms, by examining the literature. It also seeks to create a dialogue among members of our community for the purpose of identifying a more proactive research agenda. Two forces are currently challenging our traditional research in the field of educational technology. At the national level, past research has been examined closely in an effort to determine if the enormous expenditures have been worth the costs. Overall, our community has helped understand the complexity of the challenge, and yet, we continue to ask some of the same questions.