Underwater Physiology is a collection of papers that deals with the physiologically limiting effects of undersea, high pressure exposure ranging from fundamental biological reactions, through integration of physiological stresses, and to limits actually experienced in deep diving. Papers discuss oxygen, the mechanisms of toxicity, and the effects of oxygen on cells and systems such as its pathological and physiological influences in the neurosensory ocular tissue. Other papers discuss the physical effects of pressure and gases on cellular function, protein structure, and the possibility of alleviating symptoms through the administration of drugs. Tests in mice show that various gases exhibit qualitative and semi-quantitative differences in the characteristics of sickness, reactions to hypoxia, and the time before the onset of symptoms. A computer, programmed for nonlinear gas transfer and other variables, running in real time can compute directly from the breathing mixture and provide a real time solution to decompression sickness under various conditions. A combined therapeutic approach, recompression and dextran (an effective lipemic clearing agent) should be capable of treating decompression sickness in humans. Other papers investigate the influence of inert gases and pressure on the central nervous system, as well as, situations in undersea and manned chamber operations. This collection can prove valuable for physiologists, biochemists, cellular biologists, and researchers involved in deep sea diving.