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Ecological theories and hypotheses are usually complex because of natural variability in space and time, which often makes the design of experiments difficult. The statistical tests we use require data to be collected carefully and with proper regard to the needs of these tests. This book, first published in 1996, describes how to design ecological experiments from a statistical basis using analysis of variance, so that we can draw reliable conclusions. The logical procedures that lead to a need for experiments are described, followed by an introduction to simple statistical tests. This leads to a detailed account of analysis of variance, looking at procedures, assumptions and problems. One-factor analysis is extended to nested (hierarchical) designs and factorial analysis. Finally, some regression methods for examining relationships between variables are covered. Examples of ecological experiments are used throughout to illustrate the procedures and examine problems. This book will be invaluable to practising ecologists as well as advanced students involved in experimental design.