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In a time when an unquestionable link between anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and climatic changes has finally been acknowledged and * widely documented through IPCC reports, the need for precise estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) production rates and emissions from natural as well as managed ecosystems has risen to a critical level. Future agreements between nations concerning the reduction of their GHG emissions will - pend upon precise estimates of the present level of these emissions in both natural and managed terrestrial and aquatic environments. From this viewpoint, the present volume should prove to a benchmark contribution because it provides very carefully assessed values for GHG emissions or exchanges between critical climatic zones in aquatic en- ronments and the atmosphere. It also provides unique information on the biases of different measurement methods that may account for some of the contradictory results that have been published recently in the literature on this subject. Not only has a large array of current measurement methods been tested concurrently here, but a few new approaches have also been developed, notably laser measurements of atmospheric CO concentration 2 gradients. Another highly useful feature of this book is the addition of - nitoring and process studies as well as modeling.