- 2,99 €
1. INTRODUCTION Recent studies by Flora, 1999 , Bhadauria and Flora, 2007  and Modi et al., 2007  have suggested that arsenic toxicity is associated with the induction of oxidative stress in vital organs through overproduction of reactive free radicals (ROS) and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes activity. Research performed by Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1992 , shows the importance of certain enzymes in oxidative defense systems as they metabolize either free radicals or reactive oxygen intermediates to no-radical products. These enzymes play important role in free radical scavenging and amelioration of oxidative stress (OS). Study done by Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1992  and Halliwell, 2006 , further revealed that antioxidant defense mechanisms in our vital organs are not sufficient to prevent toxicity-related increase in oxidative damage and therefore exogenous intake of antioxidants might have protecting role for preserving their physiological functions. A growing number of studies have been designed to test the antioxidant effect of some agents to prevent toxicity-related degenerative changes in vital organs. Studies done by Varner et al., 1998  have shown the vital role of kidney in xenobiotics metabolism. Since, kidney and blood are among the most vulnerable biological system during oxidative stress and any xenobiotics metabolic disturbances. Therefore, kidney damage due to OS further aggravates the kidney dysfunction. This may result in additional toxic metabolites load to renal system and may cause more insult to kidney due to high OS. Hence, in present study these organs are sampled for study. As per studies of Reiter, 1991  and Halliwell, 2006 , supplementations of antioxidants are needed to enhance these antioxidative enzymes level for preventing OS. Studies of Reiter et al., 1995  illustrated the neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect on wide variety of physiological role in our body. Few studies of Simonneaux and Ribelayga, 2003  and Tandon et al., 2006  revealed that beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. The study of Bharti and Srivastava, 2009a  has suggested that the pineal gland may also have antioxidants role due to secretory product other than MEL. Literature regarding the physiological role of PP and peptides in arsenic-induced OS is completely lacking. However, earlier laboratory findings revealed that, these buffalo PP and peptides have certain physiological functions viz. immunopotentiation by Ramasamy, 2006 , heat stress by Sejian, 2006 , amelioration of fluoride-induced OS and apoptosis by Bharti, 2008  and Bharti and Srivastava, 2009b . These findings suggest the test for protecting role of PP against As-induced OS in kidney and blood. Therefore, the present study will investigate the physiological role of buffalo pineal proteins in amelioration of arsenic-induced oxidative stress through modulation of certain antioxidant defense systems. The present study will further substantiate the physiological role of PP on antioxidant defense systems, and findings may have significant implications in elucidating the therapeutic use of pineal proteins as antioxidants drugs and management of toxicity.