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Friedrich Nietzsche (Born: 15 October 1844 – Died: 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, and philologist whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the youngest person ever to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24. Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life; he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. In 1889, at age 44, he suffered a collapse and afterward a complete loss of his mental faculties. He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and then with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Nietzsche died in 1900.
Nietzsche's writing spans philosophical polemics, poetry, cultural criticism, and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and related theory of master–slave morality; aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; notion of the Apollonian and Dionysian; and characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power.
He also developed influential concepts such as the Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return. In his later work, he became increasingly preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome social, cultural and moral contexts in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health. His body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, philology, history, religion, tragedy, culture, and science, and drew early inspiration from figures such as philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, composer Richard Wagner, and writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
1. THUS SPAKE ZARATHUSTRA
2. BEYOND GOOD AND EVIL
3. THOUGHTS OUT OF SEASON - PART I
4. THOUGHTS OUT OF SEASON - PART II
5. WE PHILOLOGISTS
6. THE ANTICHRIST
7. THE CASE OF WAGNER, NIETZSCHE CONTRA WAGNER, AND SELECTED APHORISMS
8. THE BIRTH OF TRAGEDY
9. THE FUTURE OF OUR EUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
10. HUMAN, ALL TOO HUMAN
11. The Joyful Wisdom - Part I
12. The Joyful Wisdom - Part II
13. EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPHY & OTHER ESSAYS
14. Ecce Homo
15. TWILIGHT OF THE IDOLS
16. The Genealogy of Morals
17. MISCELLANEOUS MAXIMS AND OPINIONS
18. HOMER AND CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY
19. THE WILL TO POWER - Vol 1
20. THE WILL TO POWER - Vol 2