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The year 1948 holds a special place in the history of former Yugoslavia. For a variety of reasons, ranging from political to personal, the ruling Communist Party, headed by Josip Broz Tito, broke off from Stalin and the Communist family of nations to embark on an independent road to build socialism. A great number of Yugoslav Communists and non-Communists alike paid dearly for this break, Communists at the hands of their own comrades. Fearing an invasion from the Soviets, a threat that may have been unfounded but nonetheless seemed psychologically real, the Communist leadership imprisoned and persecuted thousands of those who refused to change their ideological affiliations overnight and denounce Stalin as an enemy or in any way expressed doubt that an outright interruption of relations with the first country of socialism should be avoided. Among those imprisoned there was a large number of those who were completely innocent of the charges. They were never made aware of their guilt and they spent years in prison guessing what their transgression might be. They were subjected to a process of "reeducation" that amounted to a reign of terror not seen before. A vast majority of prisoners gave in to torture and psychological pressure and made false confessions, denouncing friends and foes, including family members. Even though Tito's camps did not aim at the liquidation of prisoners, thousands died as a result of harsh treatment, starvation and diseases in prison and from the consequences of these after their release. The precise numbers are still not available.