- 25,00 kr
Timeout, when used effectively, is a powerful behavior management tool (Turner & Watson, 1999). Timeout is defined as "the withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement or the loss of positive reinforcers for a specified time, contingent upon the occurrence of a behavior; the effect to reduce the future probability of that behavior" (Cooper, Heron, Heward, 2007, p. 357). Thus, timeout has two necessary conditions. First, the current environment must have reinforcing qualities. Second, a removal of those qualities must be less reinforcing than a removal from that environment. In other words, there must be a discrepancy between time-in (i.e. the environment with reinforcement) and timeout (i.e., the environment without reinforcement; Friman & Finney, 2003; Harris, 1985; Marlow, Tingstrom, Olmi, & Edwards, 1997). In early studies, researchers demonstrated timeout by placing an animal on extinction following some behavior, which subsequently decreased that behavior's probability (Anderson & King, 1974). However, as timeout was applied in more and more settings, variability rather than conformity appeared (Friman & Finney, 2003). Even with response variability, timeout is now one of the most common disciplinary tactics used with children in the United States (Friman & Finney, 2003). There are three types of timeout: isolation or total removal from a reinforcing environment, exclusion from reinforcement within an environment, and non-exclusionary or reinforcement is stopped (Harris, 1985). Additionally, three types of nonexclusionary timeout include a removal of the reinforcing stimulus (i.e., withholding food or the cessation of music), ignoring the subject (i.e., turning away from the subject), and contingent observation (i.e., the subject must sit out and watch the appropriate behaviors of peers; Harris, 1985). With different variations available, considerations must be made when choosing a timeout procedure.