Evaluating the Evidence Base for Cognitive Strategy Instruction and Mathematical Problem Solving (Report‪)‬

Exceptional Children 2009, Spring, 75, 3

    • 25,00 kr
    • 25,00 kr

Publisher Description

Cognitive strategy instruction focuses on teaching youngsters a range of cognitive and metacognitive processes, strategies, or mental activities to facilitate learning and improve performance. These strategies may be relatively simple or complex as a function of the level of the task and the contextual conditions. Cognitive strategies appear to meet the learning needs of many students with disabilities. In particular, students with learning disabilities (LD) typically have not acquired strategies that facilitate problem solving or may have difficulty selecting strategies that are appropriate to the task, orchestrating their use, and following through with their execution (Swanson, 1990). These students infrequently abandon and replace ineffective strategies, rarely adapt previously learned strategies, and typically do not generalize strategy use across domains (Swanson, 1993). In contrast, strategic learners have a repertoire of strategies and use them effectively and efficiently. They are self-directed, self-regulating, and motivated problem solvers who can also generalize strategy use (Pressley, Borkowski, & Schneider, 1987). Students with other disabilities such as cognitive delay, behavioral disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also display problems with strategic learning and self-regulation (Morris & Mather, 2008). Like students with LD, these students may benefit from cognitive strategy instruction (e.g., Mesler, 2004). Cognitive strategy instruction and direct instruction, which have many procedural commonalities, emerged as the two most powerful instructional approaches in Swanson's meta-analyses of 20 years of intervention research in LD (Swanson, 1999; Swanson & Sachs-Lee, 2000). Unlike direct instruction, which is based primarily on behavioral theory, cognitive strategy instruction is based on both behavioral and cognitive theory (i.e., information processing and developmental theory). Cognitive strategy instruction combines instruction in cognitive processes (e.g., visualization), and metacognitive or self-regulation strategies (e.g., self-questioning). To illustrate, Montague's (1992) model includes seven cognitive processes critical to solving mathematical word problems: (a) reading the problem for understanding, (b) paraphrasing by putting the problem into one's own words, (c) visualizing by drawing a schematic representation, (d) hypothesizing or setting up a plan, (e) estimating or predicting the answer, (f) computing, and (g) checking that the plan and answer are correct. The model also includes a self-regulation component, a SAY, ASK, CHECK procedure whereby students give themselves instructions, ask themselves questions, and monitor their performance as they solve problems.

Professional & Technical
22 March
Council for Exceptional Children

More Books by Exceptional Children