This book describes Endocrine Eye Disorders, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases
The ophthalmic findings are evident with main disorders of the pancreas (diabetes retinopathy), thyroid gland, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the adrenal gland and people with multiple hereditary endocrine syndromes
Many endocrine diseases demonstrate evidence in the eye first through a range of individual pathophysiological disturbances.
People with thyroid disease occasionally produce an eye disorder that induces the immune system to attack the muscles and other tissues around the eyes.
This inflammation can result in the eyeballs to start to bulge from their sockets.
It can be rarely serious enough to induce vision loss.
Autoimmune eye disorders that are often seen in people with thyroid disease are:
1. Thyroid eye disease, occasionally known as TED
2. Graves' opthalmopathy (GO)
3. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO)
4. Grave's orbitopathy- pathology of the eye orbit
Thyroid eye disease can produce inflammation that may involve the muscles and other tissues around the eyes.
1. Pain in the eyes when looking up, down, or sideways
2. Dryness and itching of eyes, difficulty wearing contact lenses
3. Inflammation and swelling of the eye and its surrounding tissues
4. Swelling of the orbital tissues which induces the eye to be pushed forward termed exophthalmos making people with thyroid eye disease seem to have a wide-eyed or bulging, protruding stare.
5. Bloodshot eyes
6. Double vision (diplopia)
7. Light sensitivity
8. Impaired vision
9. Difficulty moving the eyes
Thyroid eye disease is believed to go through differing degrees of severity and can enter periods of remission.
It often persists 6 months to 2 years.
Disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis
Pituitary adenomas are tumors that can involve vision, occasionally producing vision loss.
As they increase in size, pituitary adenomas can apply pressure on essential structures in the body, such as the optic nerve.
Applying pressure on the optic nerve may induce blindness, so it is important for eye doctors to diagnose pituitary tumors before they produce damage to vision.
While small, the pituitary gland regulates the production of many different types of hormones.
It aids in maintaining growth and development and controls many different glands, organs, and hormones.
The most frequent structures that a pituitary tumor squashes are the optic nerve and optic chiasm.
Optic nerve compression produces a slow loss of vision or a loss of peripheral vision.
Loss of peripheral vision in the temporal or side area of the visual field is called a bi-temporal hemi-anopsia.
Other than vision alterations such as double vision, droopy eyelids, and visual field loss, pituitary adenomas also may produce these symptoms:
1. Forehead headaches
2. Nausea or vomiting
3. Alterations in sense of smell
4. Sexual dysfunction
6. Unexplained weight alterations
7. Alterations in menses or early menopause
Diseases of Parathyroid
Since it is a serious and progressive disease, patients with parathyroid disease should go through parathyroidectomy, a surgery to remove the parathyroid tumor.
The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are dissimilar in different people.
1. Corneal calcification.
Calcium can collect (be deposited) in the cornea of the eye or in the lens (cataract).
2. Osteoporosis and Osteopenia
Diagnosing eye diseases of endocrine disorders is important not only for rapid diagnosis and treatment, but also to avoid significant morbidity and mortality.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter 1 Endocrine Eye Disorders
Chapter 2 Diabetic Retinopathy
Chapter 3 Thyroid Eye Disease
Chapter 4 Hashimoto Thyroiditis
Chapter 5 Parathyroid Eye Disease
Chapter 6 Cushing Syndrome
Chapter 7 Addison Disease
Chapter 8 Prolactinoma
Chapter 9 Other Hormonal Disorder