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Descripción de editorial
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this spectacular official NASA history provides a fresh new look at the Apollo program, with fascinating, in-depth reporting on the science training given to the Apollo moon astronauts. There are details about the both the technical aspects and office politics of the training program, with a mission-by-mission review of the successes and problems encountered by each crew. Released in late 2015, this is a valuable addition to the literature on the momentous Apollo project.
Section I: GENERAL OVERVIEW * 1. Background and Rationale * 2. Recommendations * Section II: EARLY GENERAL TRAINING * 1. Introduction (Setting the Stage) * 2. Early attempts at science in space on manned flights * 3. The influence of Apollo commences * 4. Apparent conflicts * 5. Facilities * 6. Flagstaff simulations, time-motion studies, tools, etc. * 7. Setting up the training by USGS and MSC * 8. The training itself * 9. Departure of USGS Group from Houston * 10. Continuation of the training after USGS departure * 11. Reactions of astronauts to training * Section III: MISSION-ORIENTED TRAINING * 1. Introduction * 2. Groups involved in science training * 3. Interfacing with advisory committees * 4. Integration of groups and disciplines in traverse planning * 5. Rationale for content and types of training * 6. Field training for surface-science procedures * 7. Command Module training for orbital science * 8. Simulations based on lunar traverses * 9. Evolution of organizations, procedures, and tools * Section IV: SUMMARY * 1. Background of the problems * 2. Overcoming the problems * 3. Successes and disappointments in the training * 4. Recommendations for future training efforts of this nature.
Following President Kennedy's initiation of Project Apollo, NASA underwent substantial changes in personnel, organization, and programs and faced a major question: what to do on the Moon after landing. Once a decision that science activities, particularly geoscience, should be pursued, considerable debate ensued over how to accomplish this. Questions arose over instruments and tools required, samples and photos to be returned, landing site selection, and crew composition. Answers to these questions required major efforts for planning traverses on the Moon and training the astronauts in the extensive procedures necessary in low gravity to use tools, set up instruments, take adequate photos, collect and document samples, and provide proper descriptions. In addition to astronauts on the surface, an astronaut in lunar orbit managed additional instruments, photography and verbal descriptions. Training for these activities averaged nearly one hundred hours per month for over a year for each crew. There were many problems as the training progressed: adjusting groups and backgrounds of the training personnel for the best combination of personalities and skills, overcoming logistical troubles, revising awkward procedures, determining optimum means of communications between all involved groups, and devising contingency procedures for real-time problems. By the last mission these problems were overcome.