Published in 1886, Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future is a work which expands the ideas on Nietzsche’s previous work, Thus Spake Zarathustra. The book comprises 296 aphorisms arranged thematically into nine chapters. In the preface, Nietzsche accuses past philosophers of dogmatism, and in the first chapter he claims that every famous philosophy is merely a personal confession. He severely criticises the "herd" morality which, in his view, encourages a dull mediocrity. His writing enters into the concept of "beyond good and evil" in the sense of leaving behind this traditional morality in favour of what he considers an affirmative approach to confronting the nature of knowledge.