This chapter analyzes the dynamic physical and social environment around resource claims in the Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP), West Kalimantan, Indonesia. I investigate the changes in meaning ascribed to the forest and fish resources of DSNP and how these meanings are influenced by history, livelihood strategies, markets, ecology, and relations with the state and neighbors. In turn, I explore how these meanings, and the continually renegotiated ideas of territory they engender, affect both the social and the physical landscapes of the present and future. In resource-dependent communities, livelihood strategies are critical influences on what people consider a "resource" and how corresponding use rights are defined. Changing markets are also intimately associated with local perceptions of value and the interest in controlling that value through territories. In turn, access to markets depends on social networks, which are linked to ethnic, religious, political and kinship identities (Miles 1976; Hefner 1985). Seeking livelihood, therefore, is never simply an economic endeavor but one deeply imbued with cultural and social politics, in which history plays a central role (Hefner 1985; Gudeman 1986; Shipton 1989; Harwell 2000). Local resource rights to farmland, fishing grounds, and forest products are based on labor, residence and inheritance (Freeman 1955; Dove 1985; Acheson 1988; Sather 1990; Harwell 2000). Having ancestors who farmed, fished, planted trees or collected forest products in particular locations bestows complex inheritable rights to those resources, making it important for claimants to know their genealogy as well as the history of their ancestors' residence and management activity. This paper will also demonstrate how historical claims to resources have often morphed into claims over land and territory (see also Peluso 1996). The case of DSNP is an example in which these layers are exposed, in part through specific local institutions and management practices that indicate the diverse local perspectives on territory.