A clear understanding of the effects of torsion on concrete members is essential to the safe, economical design of reinforced and prestressed concrete members. This report begins with a brief and systematic summary of the 180-year history of torsion of structural concrete members, new and updated theories and their applications, and a historical overview outlining the development of research on torsion of structural concrete members. Historical theories and truss models include classical theories of Navier, Saint-Venant, and Bredt; the three-dimensional (3-D) space truss of Rausch; the equilibrium (plasticity) truss model of Nielson as well as Lampert and Thürlimann; the compression field theory (CFT) by Collins and Mitchell; and the softened truss model (STM) by Hsu and Mo.
This report emphasizes that it is essential to the analysis of torsion in reinforced concrete that members should: 1) satisfy the equilibrium condition (Mohr’s stress circle); 2) obey the compatibility condition (Mohr’s strain circle); and 3) establish the constitutive relationships of materials such as the “softened” stress-strain relationship of concrete and “smeared” stress-strain relationship of steel bars. The behavior of members subjected to torsion combined with bending moment, axial load, and shear is discussed. This report deals with design issues, including compatibility torsion, spandrel beams, torsional limit design, open sections, and size effects.
The final two chapters are devoted to the detailing requirements of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement in torsional members with detailed, step-by-step design examples for two beams under torsion using ACI (ACI 318-11), European (EC2-04), and Canadian Standards Association (CSA-A23.3-04) standards. Two design examples are given to illustrate the steps involved in torsion design. Design Example 1 is a rectangular reinforced concrete beam under pure torsion, and Design Example 2 is a prestressed concrete girder under combined torsion, shear, and flexure.