Female entrepreneurs, also known as women entrepreneurs, encompass approximately 1/3 of all entrepreneurs worldwide. Before the 20th century, women operated businesses as a way of supplementing income. In many cases, they were trying to avoid poverty or were replacing the income from the loss of a spouse. At that time, the ventures that these women undertook were not thought of as entrepreneurial. Many of them had to bow to their domestic responsibilities. The term entrepreneur is used to describe individuals who have ideas for products, and/or services that they turn into a working business. In earlier times, this term was reserved for men. This ebook is part 1 in a series. The ebook consists of 10 of the wealthiest female entrepreneurs. They are: Abigail Johnson, Alice Walton, Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken, Eva Gorda de Rivera, Jacqueline Mars, Laurene Powell Jobs, Loretta Robinson, Maria Franca Fissolo, Sandra Ortega Mera and Susanne Klatten.