This excellent report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. This study proposes a framework for analyzing an individual's path to violent extremism. The CITIG framework (crisis, identity, ties, indoctrination, and grievances) offers a four-stage process of radicalization that begins with a personal crisis (Stage One), the construction of a new identity (Stage Two), activism (Stage Three), and the preparation and execution of a criminal or violent attack (Stage Four). The study begins by offering working definitions of key terms, and then uses the proposed CITIG framework along with the Violent Extremist Risk Assessment instrument to analyze four U.S.-based case studies: two examples of Islamic-inspired violent extremism, one case of white-supremacist violence, and one of eco-extremism. These cases further refine the proposed framework and reveal a three-pillar approach for countering extremism: prevention, intervention and interdiction.
CHAPTER I - FRAMING THE PROBLEM * A. RESEARCH QUESTION * B. FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY * C. FINDINGS * D. CHAPTER OVERVIEW * CHAPTER II - DEFINITIONS OF EXTREMISM * A. WHAT IS EXTREMISM? * B. DEFINING EXTREMISM * C. EXTREMIST BELIEFS VS. ACTIONS * D. BEYOND VIOLENCE * E. RADICALIZATION: THE PROCESS OF BECOMING MORE EXTREME * F. THE INTERSECTION OF INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS * G. CONCLUSION * CHAPTER III - MODELS OF RADICALIZATION * A. NCTC * B. MCCAULEY AND MOSKALENKO'S PATHWAYS * C. AL RAFFIE'S EXPLANATION * D. NYPD MODEL OF RADICALIZATION * E. BUILDING ON EXISTING THEORIES AND MODELS * 1. Stage 1: Personal Crisis * 2. Stage 2: New Identity * 3. Stage 3: Activism * 4. Stage 4: Criminal or Violent Attack * a. Criminal Extremist * b. Violent Extremist * F. ATTRIBUTES * G. TYPOLOGIES. * H. CONCLUSION * CHAPTER IV - ISLAMIC-INSPIRED CASE STUDIES * A. RADICALIZATION FRAMEWORK * 1. Case 1: Faisal Shahzad * a. Stage 1 * b. Stage 2 * c. Stage 3 * d. Stage 4 * e. Attributes * 2. Case 2: Mohamud Osman Mohamud * a. Stage 1 * b. Stage 2. * c. Stage 3 * d. Stage 4 * e. Attributes * B. ANALYSIS * C. CONCLUSION * CHAPTER V - WHITE SUPREMACIST AND ECO-EXTREMIST CASE STUDIES * A. RADICALIZATION FRAMEWORK * 1. Case 1: Kevin William Harpham: White Supremacist Case Study * a. Stage 1 * b. Stage 2. * c. Stage 3 * d. Stage 4. * e. Attributes * 2. Case 2: Briana Waters: Eco-Extremism Case Study * a. Stage 1 * b. Stage 2 * c. Stage 3 * d. Stage 4 * e. Attributes * B. ANALYSIS * C. ASSESSING VERA * D. CONCLUSION * CHAPTER VI - REVISED CITIG FRAMEWORK AND STRATEGIES * A. REVIEW OF FINDINGS OF CASE STUDIES * B. ASSESSING VERA * 1. Revised CITIG Framework * a. Stage 1 * b. Stage 2. * c. Stage 3 * d. Stage 4 * 2. Prevention, Intervention, and Interdiction * 3. Applying the Model to Interdiction in the United States * C. CVE STRATEGY * 1. Prevention * 2. Intervention * 3. Interdiction * D. CONCLUSION