This book investigates new English language policies and initiatives which have been introduced and implemented across Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay and Venezuela. Chapters are organized around three themes. Chapters in the first section critically examine newly-implemented English language policies, as well as factors that contribute to and prevent the implementation of such policies. Chapters in the second section describe and analyze current teacher preparation and teacher development initiatives, in addition to the challenges and opportunities associated with such initiatives. Finally, the third section features school- and classroom-based research designed to investigate the status of English language teaching and the implementation of innovative programs. All authors have a first-hand understanding of the South American context and draw on references and resources which originate beyond Inner Circle countries. The book showcases examples of innovation and success in a variety of complex contexts and will serve as a starting point for researchers, as well as being of interest to students, policymakers and stakeholders.