Beginning with Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of Union, the Constitution of the United States became the crowning success of United States self government thirty-three years later when the Constitutional Convention adopted it. The Stamp Act Congress in 1765 became the first colonial attempt at united action. By the time the Second Continental Congress assembled in 1775 the first shots of the War of Independence had been fired. Newly elected after his return to Philadelphia, Franklin submitted his Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union in July. Congress delayed serious consideration of his proposal until after passing the Declaration of Independence. The Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation in 1777; however the last state did not ratify them until 1781. By 1787 it had become clear that the Articles were insufficient to govern the nation and the Constitutional Convention assembled in Philadelphia. The Convention adopted the Constitution later that year, however only after the arguments voiced by writers of the Federalist Papers was the document ratified in 1788. The Bill of Rights became the first ten amendments adopted into the Constitution.