In the 1960s, on the heels of the Brown vs. Board of Education decision and in the midst of the growing Civil Rights Movement, Ku Klux Klan activity boomed, reaching an intensity not seen since the 1920s, when the KKK boasted over 4 million members. Most surprisingly, the state with the largest Klan membership-more than the rest of the South combined-was North Carolina, a supposed bastion of southern-style progressivism.
Klansville, U.S.A. is the first substantial history of the civil rights-era KKK's astounding rise and fall, focusing on the under-explored case of the United Klans of America (UKA) in North Carolina. Why the UKA flourished in the Tar Heel state presents a fascinating puzzle and a window into the complex appeal of the Klan as a whole. Drawing on a range of new archival sources and interviews with Klan members, including state and national leaders, the book uncovers the complex logic of KKK activity. David Cunningham demonstrates that the Klan organized most successfully where whites perceived civil rights reforms to be a significant threat to their status, where mainstream outlets for segregationist resistance were lacking, and where the policing of the Klan's activities was lax. Moreover, by connecting the Klan to the more mainstream segregationist and anti-communist groups across the South, Cunningham provides valuable insight into southern conservatism, its resistance to civil rights, and the region's subsequent dramatic shift to the Republican Party.
Klansville, U.S.A. illuminates a period of Klan history that has been largely ignored, shedding new light on organized racism and on how political extremism can intersect with mainstream institutions and ideals.
With the growing momentum of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement came a concomitant rise in white-supremacist domestic terrorism, specifically (if not exclusively) in the form of a revived Ku Klux Klan, whose first incarnation dated to 1866 Tennessee. Centering his analysis on North Carolina a "progressive" state that nevertheless accounted for over half the membership of the United Klans of America (UKA) in 1965-66 Brandeis University sociologist Cunningham (There's Something Happening Here) offers a fascinating case study of the complexities of U.S. reactionary movement culture. Scrupulously examining the membership, leadership, highly placed allies, organizational and recruitment strategies, internecine feuds, and popular appeal of the Klan, as well as official responses to it, Cunningham demonstrates that the UKA's phenomenal growth in North Carolina occurred amid a relative absence of grassroots and establishment resistance to desegregation.Protestantism, nativism, and white supremacy had fertilized the growth of the KKK since 1915, and once again these served as basic elements of reactionary ideology. Moreover, Southern segregationism complemented the era's feverish anticommunism. Cunningham's study is a solid addition to the field and a worthy contribution to current debates about domestic terrorism.